Let's start with some terminology and definitions.
- Host - a computer, workstation, or server
that you are going to control with WOL
- SDB, Subnet Directed Broadcast - A type of
packet that is sent across a router to a specific subnet.
- WMI, Windows Management Instrumentation - .
An API built into Windows.
- Magic Packet - The Magic Packet is a
broadcast frame that is usually sent as a UDP datagram on port
9, in the Data-Link layer. There is no direct confirmation
that the packet was received (though there are troubleshooting
tools built into WOL).
- S0: Working (monitor off)
- S1: Sleeping. All the processor caches are flushed, and the CPU(s)
stops executing instructions. The power to the CPU(s) and RAM is maintained. Devices that do not indicate they must remain on, may be powered off.
- S2: Sleeping. CPU powered off.
- S3: Standby. Suspended to RAM. RAM remains powered on.
- S4: Hibernate. Suspended to disk and powered down.
- S5: Soft off. PSU continues to supply power to the NIC.
How WOL works
Wake-on-LAN uses a special packet called a "magic packet", which
is broadcast to the network to wakeup hosts. Because WOL
operates on the Data-Link layer, IP addresses and DNS addresses are
meaningless to the WOL process (though they are used for status
checks and shutdown). The host computers may be powered-down
or turned off, but are still listening for broadcast packets while
in low-power mode. This happens locally on the network
interface card. When the card hears it's specific "magic
packet", it signals the motherboard to wake-up, just like it would
if you pressed the power button.
- AquilaWOL has been tested on Windows XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, Server 2003, Server 2008 and Server 2012 R2
- Microsoft .NET 4.6 framework (included in Windows 10)
- Computers with network cards that support Wake on Magic
Running the software
Here are some steps to get up and running quickly.
- Verify that the host(s) you want to control support WOL.
- Using Control Panel, configure the network interface card
and enable "Wake on Magic Packet".
- Start the WOL program. By default, it is accessed from
Start -> Aquila Technology -> WakeOnLAN.
- Add a host to the WOL program. Click on File -> New
- Fill in some basic information about the host.
- Name: This is the name you use to
describe the host. It can be anything you want.
- MAC Address: Must be the MAC of the
network card that is enabled for WOL.
- IP Address: If you are using static
addressing, enter the IP address here. If you are
using DHCP, leave this field blank.
- Broadcast: This is the directed-subnet broadcast address
that WOL will send the packet to. For most networks,
the default value of 255.255.255.255 is appropriate. Use the Calculate
button to open a helper window for this. See the below
under "Calculate Subnet" for more information.
- Host URI: This is the Windows Netbios name of the
host, or the FQDN of the host.
- Group: This is an option group that you
put the host into, for example: "Servers".
- Emergency shutdown: If this box is checked, then this
host will be shutdown when you click the "Emergency
- Shutdown command line: Windows hosts can be shutdown
directly, but other operating systems, such as Linux,
require you to enter a command here to shut them down.
I usually use a putty command to do this. Leave this
field blank to use Netbios to shutdown a Windows host.
- IPv4 Interface: This field selects which interface to use to
send the WOL packets out. For example, your computer may have multiple interfaces such as wired and wireless,
and some WOL packets need to go out on one or the other.
- UDP Port: This is normally set to
port 9, but you may override it when you need to
traverse routers into other subnets.
- TTL: This field lets you override
the TTL, or Time-To-Live of the broadcast packet.
In almost all cases, the default of 128 is satisfactory.
- Delete: Use the Delete button to
delete this host from the database.
- Press OK to save your changes.
The main window should now display your new host and start
pinging it to see if it is available.
Right-click the host and you will see some options:
New Host: Add a new host to the database.
Up: This will send a WOL command to turn on the host.
- Shut Down: This will use Netbios to
shutdown the host, or the "shutdown command" if specified.
- Remote Desktop: Select this to open a
Windows Remote Desktop connection to the host.
- Properties: Used to change the settings for
- Clear IP: If you have DHCP hosts, you can
remove their ip's from the database with this option.
- Delete: Remove this host from the database.